|From Air Force Monthly
India’s air defence network is essentially divided into two parts – the ADGES and the Base Air Defence Zones (BADZ)
Indian Air Defences: Sensor Network The Indian ADGES employs a three-tier detection network. While this system is currently in the process of a major modernisation programme, the basic structure of the network will remain unchanged.
The first layer, rather surprisingly, consists of Mobile Observation Posts (MOPs) similar in concept to the British Observer Corps of World War Two. These remain among the most reliable of the early-warning mechanisms available to the Indian Air Force. The MOPS consist of two-man teams equipped with an HF/VHF radio set and field glasses. The personnel in the MOP give the first warning of airborne intrusion, the general direction of the attack and, more often than not, the numbers and types of the attacking aircraft. The MOPS provided invaluable service during the 1971 IndiaPakistan war. The MOPS are scattered along the borders randomly, at intervals of between 40 and 72 miles (25 and 45km). They are assisted in this task by personnel from the Indian police and paramilitary forces who are given some training in aircraft identification. These agencies report to the Indian Air Defence network via a communications system using both HF/VHF radio sets and telephone lines. A more advanced communications system based on fibre optic cables and satellite communications would also assist the MOPS in reporting to the radar picket line.
The radar picket line, which lies about-93 miles (150km) behind the MOPs, consists of a number of radar clusters. These comprise three radar stations separated at a distance of the sum of their radii. The equipment issued to these clusters generally comprises one Sovietera ST-68/U and two P-18/-19 radars. These are then flanked by two P-12/-15 radars. The ST-68/U acts as the Control and Reporting Centre (CRC). This may have changed somewhat as the ST-68U, which was plagued with nagging development problems, was supposed to replace older Soviet-made equipment. The ST-68/U is known by NATO as the Tin Shield radar and has a maximum range of some 217 miles (350km). It is optimised for the detection of low-flying aircraft and cruise missiles employing electronic countermeasures (ECM). Moreover, India has been producing the French-designed TRS-2215D 3-D surveillance radar under licence for a number of years and has derived from that an indigenously built radar – PSM-33 Mk 2. This has probably supplanted most of the older Soviet-bloc equipment. The TRS-2215D and PSM-33 Mk.2 have surveillance ranges of up to 317 (510km) with a peak power output of 660-700kW operating in the E/F bands and possess a very significant ECCM capability. The old P-12 and even the P-18/-19 families of radars are a different matter. While these systems have a respectable detection range, they are very much of an older vintage and have been severely compromised after their use in the Arab-Israeli wars and other conflicts. Their replacement by the ST-68/U was plagued by technical problems and the replacement of the older radars may not yet be complete. A number of Air Defence Control Centres (ADCCs) are located behind the radar picket line. The radar picket line and the ADCC are separated by a layer of air defence weapons which are the first to engage the intruders.
The backbone of the Indian Air Defence Ground Environment system is the huge THD-1955 3-D long-range surveillance radar that was once in widespread use throughout NATO. This radar, originally of French design, has been licence-built in India for a number of years. This E/F-band radar, though somewhat elderly, still offers sterling performance characteristics and is capable of maximum detection ranges of up to 620 miles (1,000km), though the Indian Air Force usually limits its power to a 250 miles (400km) detection range. These form the core of the ADCCs. The THD-1955 has a peak operating power of up to 20MW, though its normal operating power is usually 2MW. The radar has comprehensive ECM/ECCM capabilities and has no real detection altitude limitation. If the radar has one disadvantage, it is its sheer size. The Indian Air Force has undertaken to upgrade these radars with digital signal processing and clutter removal techniques.
The ADGES communication system is also being updated by the digitalisation of the analogue links and back-up satellite and fibre-optic communications. The IAF uses extensive microwave communications systems and mobile digital troposcatter terminals.
Like the ADGES, the BADZ consists of three layers. The first of these are the mobile observation posts, followed by a mixed layer of weapons and their associated radars, along with a picket line of low-level radars. These are, in turn, supported by anti-aircraft artillery batteries. This network is controlled by a ST68U radar, supported by other radars such as the TRS-2215D and the PSM-33. Low-level detection gaps are filled by the Indian-made Indra-1 radar which has a range of 30 miles (50km).The BADZ provides comprehensive and gapfree coverage over its assigned area of responsibility. Some observers have likened the BADZ set-up to the defence pattern of a carrier battle group. Any aircraft attacking a vital military target, therefore, not only has to get past the ADGES, but also the far more formidable BADZ.
|From Air Force Monthly
Strategic Air Defences in Pakistan
Pakistan’s Air Defence Command was formed in 1975. It is based at Chaklala air force base near Rawalpindi and exercises control, surveillance and co-ordination over all Pakistani airspace. The ADC HQ is based in bunkers 16 to 32ft (5 to 10m) below ground and has four rows of consoles with 20-25 men operating them. All units – aircraft, air bases and AAA units – are represented on screens. In fact, the ADC HQ set-up is regarded as being one of the most modern in existence.
Subordinate to the ADC HQ are four Sector Operations Centres, which in turn control six Control & Reporting Centres (CRCs). The four sector headquarters are located at Quetta, Sargodha, Karachi and Peshawar. As in the case of India, Pakistan has a comprehensive radar network which can also accept data from the civilian air traffic control radar. The radar network was established from 1976 onwards as part of Project CRYSTAL which aimed to give Pakistan a modern air defence network.Pakistan operates a bewildering variety of radars from varying sources. The most modern units are six TPS-43G 3-D long range radars. These are supplemented by some older American, Chinese and British long-range radars. The TPS-43G is a large E-band system with a 278-mile (447km) range against highlevel targets and a 4MW peak power output, though normal power output is 6.7KW. These radars were acquired as the second-phase of Project CRYSTAL. Two installations operate the FPS-89/100 modified versions of the FPS-6/-20 heightfinding radars supplied under the US Military Assistance Program. These E/F band systems have a range of 217 miles (350km) and a peak power of 4.5MW. One of the initial FPS-6 radars was destroyed at Badin during the 1965 India-Pakistan war. Pakistan also operates a number of Chinese-made Type 514 radars at Skardu and Gilgit and three squadrons of British 1960s vintage Condor radars.
As regards low-level radars, in 1979-80, as the first stage of Project CRYSTAL, Pakistan purchased 45 mobile pulse Doppler radars from Siemens of Germany. These systems are of the MPDR 45/E type and are controlled by six CRCs. These are extremely capable radars and significantly enhance Pakistan’s ability to detect low-level Indian intruders. However, since most of Pakistan’s major targets are located so close to the Indian border, there is very little time available for the defenders to react. This problem will remain with Pakistan for the foreseeable future. The MPDR (Mobile Pulse Doppler Radar) 45/E radars are D-band systems with ranges of between 28 and 56 miles (45 and 90km). Two versions – with ranges of 28 and 37km (45 and 60km) – are fully mobile, while the 56-mile version is air transportable. In addition to the MPDR systems, Pakistan purchased a total of nine Plessey AR-1/15 radars in 1968-69. These comprised six static AR-is and three mobile AR-15s. The AR-1/15 family has a range of 93 miles (150km).
This is a fairly old article and I hope that posts in this thread would update the status of the Command and Control Systems of both Air Forces.